22 According to genetic analysis, it was closely related to the siberian tiger. 35 The population inhabited forests and riverine corridors from Eastern Anatolia, south caucasus and coast of Caspian sea, along the coast of the Aral sea, in Amu-darya and Syr-Darya basins homework to the southern shore of lake balkhash and into the Altai mountains. 34 It had been recorded in the wild until the early 1970s and is considered extinct since the late 20th century. 36 Siberian tiger (. Altaica ( Temminck, 1844). 21 Also known as the Amur tiger. The siberian tiger has a thick coat with pale hues and few dark brown stripes.
28 29 In northern India and Nepal, the average is larger; males weigh up to 235 kilograms (518 lb while females average 140 kilograms (310 lb). 30 Recorded body weights of wild individuals indicate that it is the heaviest subspecies. 31 This population occurs in Bangladesh, bhutan, india, nepal, foremost in alluvial grasslands, subtropical and tropical rainforests, scrub forests, wet and dry deciduous forests and mangrove habitats. It is extinct in pakistan. 1 In 2014, the population in India was estimated at 2,226 mature individuals, in Nepal and 103 in Bhutan. 33 Caspian tiger (. Tigris 26 formerly. Virgata ( Illiger, 1815) 21 thank The caspian tiger was described as having narrow and closely set stripes. 34 The size of its skull did not differ significantly from that of the bengal tiger.
The authors also noted that this reclassification will affect tiger conservation management. 24 One conservation specialist welcomed this proposal as it would make captive breeding programmes and future rewilding of zoo-born tigers easier. One geneticist was sceptical of this study and maintained that the currently recognised nine subspecies can be distinguished genetically. 25 In 2017, the cat Classification Task force of the iucn cat Specialist Group revised felid taxonomy and now recognizes the tiger populations in continental Asia. Tigris, and those in the sunda Islands. 26 The following table is based on the classification of the species Panthera tigris provided in Mammal Species of the world. 21 It also reflects the classification used by the cat Classification Task force: Non-insular Asia subspecies Description Image bengal tiger (. Tigris ) (Linnaeus, 1758) 26 21 The bengal tiger's coat colour varies from light yellow to reddish yellow with black stripes. 27 Males attain a total nose-to-tail length of 270 to 310 cm (110 to 120 in) and weigh between 180 to 258 kg (397 to 569 lb while females range from 240 to 265 cm (94 to 104 in) and 100 to 160 kg (220 to 350 lb).
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Morphologically, tigers from different regions vary little, and gene flow between populations in those regions is considered to have been possible during the Pleistocene. Therefore, it was proposed to recognize only two tiger subspecies as valid, namely. Tigris in mainland Asia, and. Sondaica in the Greater Sunda Islands and possibly in Sundaland. 22 Results of craniological analysis of 111 tiger skulls from southeast Asian range countries story indicate that Sumatran tiger skulls differ from Indochinese and javan tiger skulls, whereas Bali tiger skulls are similar in size to javan tiger skulls.
The authors proposed to classify sumatran and javan tiger as distinct species,. Sondaica with Bali tiger as subspecies. 23 In 2015, morphological, ecological and molecular traits of all putative tiger subspecies were analysed in a combined approach. Results support distinction of the two evolutionary groups continental and Sunda tigers. The authors proposed recognition of only two subspecies, namely. Tigris comprising the bengal, malayan, Indochinese, south Chinese, siberian and Caspian tiger populations, and. Sondaica comprising the javan, bali and Sumatran tiger populations.
Tigers grew in size, possibly in response to adaptive radiations of prey species like deer and bovids, which may have occurred in southeast Asia during the early Pleistocene. 16 The earliest fossils of true tigers are between.6 and.8 million years old and were found in java. Distinct fossils are known from the early and middle Pleistocene deposits in China and Sumatra. The Trinil tiger ( Panthera tigris trinilensis ) lived about.2 million years ago and is known from fossils found at Trinil in java. Citation needed The wanhsien, ngandong, trinil and Japanese tigers became extinct in prehistoric times. 17 Tigers first reached India and northern Asia in the late Pleistocene, reaching eastern Beringia, japan, and sakhalin.
Some fossil skulls are morphologically distinct from lion skulls, which could indicate tiger presence in Alaska during the last glacial period, about 100,000 years ago. 18 Fossils found in Japan indicate the local tigers were smaller than the mainland forms, possibly due to insular dwarfism. 19 The tiger's full genome sequence was published in 2013. It was found to have similar repeat composition than other cat genomes and an appreciably conserved synteny. 20 Recent subspecies Following Linnaeus's first descriptions of the species, several tiger specimens were described and proposed as subspecies. 21 The validity of several tiger subspecies was questioned in 1999. Most putative subspecies described in the 19th and 20th centuries were distinguished on basis of fur length and coloration, striping patterns and body size, hence characteristics that vary widely within populations.
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Results of genetic tree analysis indicate that about.88 million years ago, the tiger and the snow leopard diverged from the other Panthera species, and that both may be more closely related to each other than to the lion, leopard and jaguar. 13 14 Results of a phylogeographic study indicate that all living tigers had a common ancestor 72,000108,000 years ago. 15 Fossil remains of the longdan tiger were found in the gansu province of northwestern China. This species lived at the beginning of the Pleistocene, about 2 million years ago, and is considered to be a sister taxon of the modern tiger. It was about the size of a jaguar and probably had a different coat pattern. Despite being considered more " primitive the longdan tiger was functionally and possibly ecologically similar to the modern tiger. As it lived in northwestern China, that may have been where the tiger lineage originated.
7 The word specific name tigris derives from the Classical Greek language τίγρις meaning "tiger" as well as the river Tigris. 8 The middle English tigre and the Old English tigras (a plural word) were both used for the animal. 9 These derive from the Old French tigre, itself a derivative of the latin word tigris. The original source may have been the persian tigra meaning pointed or sharp and the avestan tigrhi meaning an arrow, perhaps referring to the speed with which a tiger launches itself at its prey. 10 Taxonomy and genetics In 1758, carl Linnaeus described the tiger in his work systema naturae and gave it the scientific name felis tigris. 3 In 1929, the British taxonomist Reginald Innes Pocock subordinated the species under the genus Panthera using the scientific name panthera essay tigris. 11 12 evolution Tiger phylogenetic relationships Restoration of Panthera zdanskyi, an extinct relative whose oldest remains were found in northwest China, suggesting the origins of the tiger lineage The tiger's closest living relatives were previously thought to be the panthera species lion, leopard and jaguar.
100,000 at the start of the 20th century, with most remaining populations occurring in small pockets isolated from each other, in which about 2,000 tigers live on the Indian. 1 In 2016, an estimate of a global wild tiger population of approximately 3,890 individuals was presented during the Third Asia ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation. 4 5 The wwf declared that the world's count of wild tigers has risen for the first time in a century. 6 The tiger is among the most recognisable and popular of the world's charismatic megafauna. It featured prominently in ancient mythology and folklore, and continues to be depicted in modern films and literature, appearing on many flags, coats of arms, and as mascots for sporting teams. The tiger is the national animal of Bangladesh, india, malaysia and south Korea. Contents Etymology The word Panthera is probably of Oriental origin and retraceable to the Ancient Greek word panther, the latin word panthera, the Old French word pantère, most likely meaning "the yellowish animal or from pandarah meaning whitish-yellow. The derivation from Greek pan- all and ther beast may be folk etymology.
Tiger populations once ranged widely across. Asia, from the, black sea in the west, to the, indian Ocean in the south, and from. Kolyma to, sumatra in the east. Over the past 100 years, the species has lost 93 twist of its historic range, and has been extirpated from. Western and Central Asia, from the islands of java and Bali, and from large areas of southeast, south, and East Asia. Today, it ranges from the siberian taiga to open grasslands and tropical mangrove swamps, and has been classified as endangered in the iucn red List. Major reasons for population decline include habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation and poaching.
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For other uses, see. Tiger (disambiguation) and, tigress (disambiguation). The tiger panthera tigris ) is the largest cat species, most recognizable for its pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside. The species is classified in the genus. Panthera with the lion, mattress leopard, jaguar, and snow leopard. It is an apex predator, primarily preying on ungulates such as deer and bovids. It is territorial and generally a solitary but social predator, often requiring large contiguous areas of habitat that support its prey requirements. This, coupled with the fact that it is indigenous to some of the more densely populated places on Earth, has caused significant conflicts with humans.